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About Diabetes
There are a number of different types of diabetes. The two most common are type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D, insulin-dependent or juvenile) can occur at any age, but most commonly is diagnosed from infancy to the late 30s. With T1D, a person’s pancreas produces little or no insulin. Although the causes are not entirely known, scientists believe the body’s own defense system (the immune system) attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.  People with T1D must inject insulin several times every day or continually infuse insulin through a pump.

While its causes are not yet entirely understood, scientists believe that both genetic factors and environmental triggers are involved. Its onset has nothing to do with diet or lifestyle. There is nothing you can do to prevent T1D, and — at present — nothing you can do to get rid of it.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D, non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) Type 2 diabetes typically develops after age 40, but can appear earlier, and has recently begun to appear with more frequency in children. In this form of diabetes, the pancreas still produces insulin, but the body does not produce enough or is not able to use it effectively. Treatment includes diet control, exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose and, in some cases, oral drugs or insulin.

What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes?

The symptoms may occur suddenly, and include one or more of the following:

  • Extreme thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Drowsiness, lethargy
  • Sugar in urine
  • Sudden vision changes
  • Increased appetite
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Fruity, sweet, or wine-like odor on breath
  • Heavy, labored breathing
  • Stupor, unconsciousness

If you think you or your child has diabetes, call a doctor immediately, and drink fluids WITHOUT SUGAR, if able to swallow, to prevent dehydration


What is the Optimal Blood Glucose Range

You should check with your doctor to determine the range of blood-glucose levels best for the person with T1D. In general, optimal blood-glucose goals are:

Before Meals: 70–110 mg/dL
At Bedtime: 100–140 mg/dL

If your before-meals blood glucose is consistently lower than 70 mg/dL or higher than 140 mg/dL, or your bedtime blood glucose is consistently lower than 100 mg/dL or higher than 160 mg/dL, you probably need a change in your treatment plan and should consult your doctor. blood glucose goals may be modified for children and others who are at greater risk for hypoglycemia

More information about Type 1 Diabetes can be found on http://jdrf.org/

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